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If you have a speaker connected to the audio jack and find the volume too low or too loud, you may find the volume tool in Raspberry Pi OS does not work, this is because the volume is being controlled by the PulseAudio and you need to use the alsamixer tool to adjust the volume.
From the terminal, execute the command:
In the config screen shown below, press F6 on your keyboard to select the Headphone sound card.
You can then use the Up or Down arrow key on your keyboard to adjust the volume. Once you are done, press Esc key to exit and save the setting.
For USB speaker, you can just adjust the volume through Raspberry OS's GUI volume tool.